Numerous documents you write in college will demand you to definitely make a disagreement

How do I integrate evidence into my paper?

There are numerous methods to provide your proof. Frequently, your proof will soon be included as text within the physical human body of one’s paper, being a quote, paraphrase, or summary. Often you may add graphs, maps, or tables; excerpts from a job interview; or photographs or pictures with associated captions.


Whenever you quote, you might be reproducing another writer’s words just as they show up on the web page. Below are a few ideas to assist you in deciding when you should utilize quotations:

  1. Quote in the event that you can’t state it any benefit plus the author’s words are especially brilliant, witty, edgy, distinctive, good example of a place you’re making, or elsewhere interesting.
  2. Quote if you work with an especially respected supply and also you require the author’s expertise to backup your point.
  3. Quote if you should be analyzing diction, tone, or a writer’s usage of a word that is specific expression.
  4. Quote if you should be going for a position that hinges on the reader’s understanding precisely just just what another author claims in regards to the subject.

Make sure to introduce each quote you utilize, and always cite your sources. See our handout on quotations to get more information on when you should quote and how to format quotations.

As with any items of proof, a quote can’t talk for it self. If you end a paragraph having a quote, which may be an indication you have actually ignored to talk about the necessity of the quote when it comes to your argument. It’s important to avoid quotations that are“plop” that is, quotations which can be simply fallen into the paper with no introduction, conversation, or follow-up.


Once you paraphrase, you take a particular element of a text and place it to your very own terms. Placing it into the very very own terms does not suggest just changing or rearranging some of the author’s terms: to paraphrase well and steer clear of plagiarism, take to establishing your source apart and restating the phrase or paragraph you have got simply look over, as it to another person though you were describing. Paraphrasing is significantly diffent than summary because a paraphrase targets a specific, fairly brief little bit of text ( like an expression, phrase, or paragraph). You’ll need certainly to suggest while you are paraphrasing some body else’s text by citing your supply properly, in the same way you’d with a quote.

Whenever might you intend to paraphrase?

  1. Paraphrase when you need to introduce a writer’s place, but his / her initial terms aren’t special sufficient to quote.
  2. Paraphrase while you are supporting a point that is particular want to draw on a particular invest a text that supports your point—for instance, whenever one paragraph in a supply is particularly appropriate.
  3. Paraphrase when you need presenting a writer’s take on a topic that varies from your own place or compared to another author; after that you can refute writer’s points that are specific your very own terms once you paraphrase.
  4. Paraphrase when you wish to touch upon a specific instance that another author utilizes.
  5. Paraphrase if you want presenting information that is not likely become questioned.

You are offering an overview of an entire text, or at least a lengthy section of a text when you summarize. Overview is advantageous if you’re supplying back ground information, grounding your very own argument, or mentioning a source being a counter-argument. An overview is less nuanced than paraphrased product. It could be probably the most way that is effective include a lot of sources whenever you don’t have lots of area. When you’re summarizing some body argument that is else’s a few ideas, be certain this can be clear to your audience and cite your supply accordingly.

Data, information, charts, graphs, photographs, pictures

Sometimes the evidence that is best for the argument is a difficult reality or artistic representation of a well known fact. This kind of proof could be a backbone that is solid your argument, you nevertheless have to produce context for the audience and draw the connections you prefer her or him to make. Understand that data, information, maps, graph, photographs, and pictures are typical available to interpretation. Guide your reader through the interpretation procedure. Once again, always, cite the foundation of one’s proof you are using yourself if you didn’t produce the material.

Do i want more evidence?

Let’s state that you’ve identified some appropriate sources, discovered some proof, explained to your audience exactly how it fits to your general argument, included it to your draft effortlessly, and cited your sources. How can you inform whether you’ve got enough proof and whether it is working well within the solution of a good argument or analysis? Below are a few strategies you should use to examine your draft and evaluate your usage of proof.

Produce a reverse outline

A outline that is reverse a great way of assisting you to observe how each paragraph plays a role in demonstrating your thesis. Whenever you produce a reverse outline, you record the key tips in each paragraph in a shorter (outline-like) form to enable you to see at a look what exactly is in your paper. The reverse outline is useful in at the least three straight ways. First, it enables you to see in which you have resume help actually managed a lot of subjects in a single paragraph (as a whole, you ought to have one idea that is main paragraph). 2nd, the opposite outline will allow you to see for which you require more proof to show your point or higher analysis of the proof. Third, the opposite outline will allow you to write your subject sentences: once you’ve determined what you need each paragraph become about, you are able to compose subject sentences that explain the subjects regarding the paragraphs and state the connection of each and every subject to your thesis that is overall of paper.

For advice on building an outline that is reverse see our handout on organization.

Color code your paper

You’ll need three highlighters or colored pencils for this workout. Make use of one color to highlight basic assertions. These will typically function as sentences that are topic your paper. Next, use another color to emphasize the particular proof you give each assertion (including quotations, paraphrased or summarized product, data, examples, as well as your very own tips). Lastly, utilize another color to highlight analysis of one’s proof. Which assertions are fundamental to your current argument? Those that are specifically contestable? Just just How much evidence do you’ve got for every assertion? Just exactly just How analysis that is much? As a whole, you ought to have at the least just as much analysis as you do evidence, or your paper operates the possibility of being more summary than argument. The greater amount of controversial an assertion is, the greater amount of proof you may need certainly to offer to be able to persuade your audience.

Enjoy devil’s advocate, behave like kid, or question everything

This system may be easiest to utilize having a partner. Pose a question to your buddy to battle one of many functions above, then read your paper aloud to him/her. After each and every part, pause and allow your buddy interrogate you. When your friend is playing devil’s advocate, she or he will usually just take the opposing viewpoint and force one to keep protecting your self. In case your buddy is acting like a kid, she or he will concern every phrase, also ones that are seemingly self-explanatory. If for example the buddy is a doubter, she or he won’t think whatever you state. Justifying your position verbally or describing your self will force one to bolster the proof in your paper.

Typical concerns and resources that are additional

  • We have a topic that is general brain; how do I develop it therefore I’ll know very well what proof i want? And exactly how am I able to get a few ideas to get more proof? See our handout on brainstorming.
  • Who are able to assist me find proof on my subject? Consider UNC Libraries.
  • I’m writing for a purpose that is specific how do I tell what sort of proof my market wants? See our handouts on market, composing for particular procedures, and particular writing assignments.
  • just exactly How must I read materials to collect proof? See our handout on reading to publish.
  • How do I produce an argument that is good? Check always away our handouts on argument and thesis statements.
  • How do you inform if my paragraphs and my paper are well-organized? Review our handouts on paragraph development, transitions, and drafts that are reorganizing.
  • How do you quote my sources and include those quotes into my text? Our handouts on quotations and avoiding plagiarism offer useful recommendations.
  • How can I cite my proof? Start to see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial.
  • I do believe that I’m offering proof, but my instructor says I’m utilizing summary that is too much. How to tell? Check always away our handout on making use of summary sensibly.
  • I wish to utilize individual experience as proof, but could I say “I”? A handout is had by us on whenever to make use of “I.”